Service delivery and performance management for development at local levels in Tanzania: A myth or reality?
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Tanzania’s Local Government Reform Programme (LGRP) of 1998 aimed at improving the delivery of quality services to the public. The main strategy is decentralization, which is being implemented through decentralization by devolution. The effective decentralization of Government and the reform of Local Government are part of the foundations of change in the education and health sectors. The reform programme includes devolution of roles and authority by the Central Government by transferring political, ﬁnancial and development planning authority to Local Government Authorities (LGAs); freedom to make policy and operational decisions consistent with the laws of the land and Government policies, without interference by the Central Government institutions; and, LGAs being responsible for the efﬁcient and effective delivery of social and economic services to the people (URT, 1998). The link between development and devolved performance management is anchored on Stigler`s menu, that is, the closer the government is to the people the better it works (Liviga, 2009). This refers to the fundamentals of democratic practices such as citizens’ capacity to own the agenda of development and their ability to monitor the actions and inaction's of the individuals holding public ofﬁces on their behalf. The article thus, through review of literature's, examines the Tanzanian Government’s implementation of its decentralization by devolution (D-by-D) policy, and the impact of the output on performance management in service delivery and development landmarks. The historical factors of centralization tend to create the ﬂaws in the design and implementation of D-by-D in most Central Government ministries, departments and agencies (MDAs). It is concluded that performance measurement for development at local levels is a myth.